defection.Generally the behavior of an ingroup member is perceived as disloyal when it benefits an outgroup at the expense of the ingroup. Political authorities often treat spying for their rivals and affiliation with violent insurgent groups as defection. But in many conflict settings, loyalty expectation encompass a
broader range of behavior.Individuals may be labeled as defectors for their political activism, religious activities, ethnic identity, dual citizenship and other criteria that lend credence to claims of
We argue that the co-production of loyalty---the interaction between expectations, perceptions, and behavior---increases conformity as expected or generates unintended cascades of defection.
Guidance for the development and presentation of evidence-driven computational models.
As cities emerge as the dominant sites for civil conflict, international organisations and governments are faced with situations that differ markedly from rural locales.